Platelets are important cells of human body. These cells circulate in the blood and bind together when it recognizes damaged blood vessels. It is very important because it helps to stop the bleeding whenever you get a cut and suffer a blood clot. To fully understand where platelets are made, you must know first the importance of it.
Importance of Platelets
Platelets are essential components of human blood to maintain the normal function of the body. These small cellular bodies are circular shaped and flow through the bloodstream. Platelets have different important functions in the body. These include healing open and bleeding wounds, to create blood clots as well as other processes in the human body.
If you got injured in an accident, it would alert the platelets to create a clot to stop the bleeding. What makes the platelets extraordinary is that it changes shape from a circle into long tentacles similar to octopuses, when it reached the injured area. It is why the bleeding can stop within just a few minutes. Furthermore, the wound can be healed in just a short period.
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More importantly, platelets also have a big role in inflammation. The endothelium of the healthy blood vessels can stop the activation of circulating procoagulant proteins and prevent the activation and adhesion of platelet when there are inflammatory conditions and formation of proinflammatory cytokines. It can result in the activation of endothelial cells, assuming prothrombotic properties.
Blood platelets are small cells which are an important part of the body’s circulatory system. It has a role of thickening or coagulating the blood in the event where you spring a leak. When microscopic cells or platelets don’t perform its job, the small cut that you get from an accident can be more dangerous and can even lead to death.
Effects of Low Platelets
When you have a low level of platelets, you can suffer from a condition called Thrombocytopenia. This condition can be mild or severe reliant upon the cause of it. According to scientific researchers, this condition commonly happens to pregnant women. Thus, there are extreme changes in the body’s hormones which lead to Thrombocytopenia.
If not given an immediate solution, it may lead to more serious trouble. It can produce side effects of bleeding which can develop more complicated conditions than pregnancy. It is the reason why you need to increase the level of your platelets.
If you don’t want to be in a complicated situation, it is time to take action and increase your platelets production. The following ideas can help you with this matter.
How Platelets Are Made
Low level of platelets in the human body can lead to severe bleeding. Meanwhile, the platelets are cellular components of the blood which are made in the bone marrow.
Bone marrow is the place where all of the body’s cellular components are formed. The formation uses stem cells that can divide endlessly and can be converted to various types of several cellular lines.
Moreover, there are two kinds of bone marrow where the platelets are formed. These are the red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow. To further explain you on where are the platelets made, the following are the step by step process.
Step-by-Step Process of Platelet Formation
- The Primary Cell
If an embryo is born, it contains a type of cell named totipotent cell. These cells can divide into different cells of the body, whether in brain or bone, lung or liver, ear or eye. This cell also rises to all cells and comes with the unmatched capacity to divide. There is now a formation of hematopoietic cells that provide birth to all the cells in the blood. The stem cells will continue to divide to maintain the pool of totipotent cells alive.
- The Birth Mother of All Blood Cells
Hematopoietic stem cells are the primary ancestors in the bloodline of the cells with a lineage of platelets. These stem cells are considered pleuripotent, meaning it can grow to a different form of cells like as white blood cells, red blood cells, as well as platelets. It is the very first cell that can give birth to other cells in the blood.
Hematopoietic cells also give birth to progenitor cells under the effect of colony stimulating factors that need chemicals to direct a specific type of cell in dividing another type of cell. One example is the GM-CSF or the granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor. This factor provides rise to blood cell lines from the hematopoietic cells. The cells will also be divided continuously to maintain the pleuripotent pool alive.
- The Progenitor Cell
These cell types are the committed ones in the lineage. Upon its formation, it can rise to another cell line which depends on the provided chemical influence. In other terms, progenitor cells are responsible for the formation of the given cell type and can’t form any other type of cell. Furthermore, a progenitor cell can only rise to a specific type of cell.
- Cell Lines Pooling
In this process, the various types of cells form together from a shared ancestor. The cell lines pooled in particular areas and detached from each other.
With the stimulating effect of colony stimulating factors, megakaryoblast was formed by the progenitor cells. These factors are significant elements for the production of platelets. These cells are immature cells which are only found in the bone marrow. In a different type of illness, these cells can be early released into the circulation and can appear on a peripheral blood smear.
- Formation of Megakaryocyte
The megakaryoblasts can be developed with the effect of similar stimulating factors that give rise to megakaryocyte. The role of colony stimulating factors in the platelet formation is restricted in this process. Erythropoietin is responsible for the production of platelets from here on.
- Maturation of the Megakaryocyte
With the influence of erythropoietin, megakaryocytes can mature. Erythropoietin can be formed by the kidneys and liver and is released into the blood and reaches the bones and enters the bone marrow. It displays its influence in the megakaryocytes maturation. In kidneys and liver illnesses, the production of erythropoietin is compromised. Moreover, the level of platelets decreases because of the lack of optimization with this process.
- Megakaryocyte Extrusion From the Bone
Megakaryocytes are considered as the platelets precursors. It was the last step regarding the participation of the bone marrow from other steps which take place in the blood and outside the bone. Megakaryocytes reach the bone through the capillaries and were released into the blood.
- Pro-Platelet Release and Megakaryocyte Breakage
Cellular breakage and nuclear death may happen as soon as the megakaryocytes were released to the blood. They are released through into the blood through the capillaries. In this stage, the megakaryocytes have pro platelet outgrowths that break off from the center body of the megakaryocytes. The pro platelet extensions transport with them the protein forming machinery of the cells.
- Platelets Formation
From the breaking off of the pro platelets into smaller pieces in the blood, there is finally a platelet production. The platelets formed can be calculated in the blood with the help of diagnostic procedures such as taking a blood sample from the peripheral blood and putting in a cell counter. It helps to detect any abnormality in the number of platelets. For you to check the platelet morphology, a peripheral blood smear was created and seen through the use of a microscope. The smear is a spread of blood which is taken from a periphery like a limb and spread on a slide.
To sum it up, these main steps about the production of platelets prove that there are possible mistakes when it comes to platelet morphology or count. Any drug or defect that may delay one of these procedures can result in the alteration of the procedure of the platelet formation. It can lead to an abnormal number and growth of platelets that can also lead to medical complications.
Meanwhile, when it comes to diagnosing a patient from the symptoms of suggestive platelet dysfunction like clotting and bleeding, the physician must consider all of these steps and inspect each step for the factors that may affect the platelet morphology or count. It also encompasses the assessment of symptoms, results of platelet count as well as diagnostic examinations.
It is necessary to remember that all blood cells come from a single cell. All cells are originated from a single cell, and the defect at an early stage can result in a disease on the later stage. With this, it is important to take care of the bone marrow at the time of the formation of platelet which continues through life.
More importantly, a small change in the environment of the platelet production or any other blood cell formation can lead to a big difference in the normal function of your body.
How Long It Takes to Form Platelets?
In the normal every day platelet production, it takes about seven days before cell changes from a stem cell to a red cell in the human bloodstream. The platelet formation also happens within seven days. The average lifespan of platelets is estimated at 8 to 9 days. The lifespan of platelets depends on the individual’s internal apoptotic regulating pathway which has a Bcl-XL timer. On the other hand, the old platelets are vanished by phagocytosis in the liver and spleen.
Platelets are very important elements in the normal functions of the human body. With this, you must maintain enough level of it to avoid some illnesses. Do you have a low level of platelets in your body? Then, the following tips can help you to solve this problem.
How to Increase Your Platelets in a Natural Way
Eat foods that contain more calcium. You can also include tea or powder and papaya juice in your diet. Eating folate-rich foods can also help. It is also suggested to get rid of alcohol and fish oil. The human body has an average of 150,000 to 450,000 of platelets per micro-liter of blood. However, the count of platelets depends from body to body. When the platelet count falls below 150,000 per micro-liter, then you can suffer from a condition of low platelets or thrombocytopenia. To maintain a healthy platelet count, you must have a balanced diet and proper exercise to improve the circulation of the blood. As a result, you can have a normal body function that makes you healthy.
To better understand about platelets, the following are the reasons why your platelet count decreases.
Causes of Low Level of Blood Platelets
- The bone marrow can’t form enough platelets.
- Illness, high fever, and infections.
- The body kills or uses up the platelets.
- The spleen that stores about 1/3 of your platelets can maintain too much of them.
- The prescription of the Heparin drug (blood thinner) is known to decrease the level of blood-plates.
- Any combination of the above.
How to Know If You Lack Platelet Count
Lack of platelet count is very dangerous. Therefore, it is suggested to check your platelet count to avoid possible health problems. The following are the tips to know if you have a low level of platelets.
- Prolonged bleeding from a small cut.
- Bleeding of gums.
- Nose bleeding.
- People who have low platelet count are easily bruised and more often.
- Skin rashes brought about by continuous bleeding of tissue under the skin.
Foods To Eat To Increase Your Platelet Count
- Papaya. It is a natural way of boosting the number of your platelets. Drinking papaya juice can help you to beat the risks of having low platelets.
- Calcium from dairy foods. Calcium plays a vital role in aiding external bleeding. Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt can help to strengthen your bones and at the same time increase your blood platelets.
- Foods that are rich in folate. Eat green leafy vegetable, and you can increase your hemoglobin levels in your blood.
It is how platelets are made and how it can help you to maintain the normal function of your body.